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By V. Mine-Boss. University of Advancing Technology.

People are more attracted to faces that are more symmetrical than they are to those that are less symmetrical discount 50mg viagra professional with visa, and this may be due in part to the [6] perception that symmetrical faces are perceived as healthier (Rhodes et al viagra professional 50mg low cost. Although you might think that we would prefer faces that are unusual or unique buy viagra professional 50 mg lowest price, in fact the [7] opposite is true best viagra professional 50mg. The researchers found that the more faces that were averaged into the stimulus, the more attractive it was judged. Although preferences for youthful, symmetrical, and average faces have been observed cross- culturally, and thus appear to be common human preferences, different cultures may also have unique beliefs about what is attractive. In modern Western cultures, “thin is in,‖ and people [8] prefer those who have little excess fat (Crandall, Merman, & Hebl, 2009). The need to be thin to be attractive is particularly strong for women in contemporary society, and the desire to maintain a low body weight can lead to low self-esteem, eating disorders, and other unhealthy Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. However, the norm of thinness has not always been in place; the preference for women with slender, masculine, and athletic looks has become stronger over the past 50 years. In contrast to the relatively universal preferences for youth, symmetry, and averageness, other [9] cultures do not show such a strong propensity for thinness (Sugiyama, 2005). Forming Judgments on the Basis of Appearance: Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination We frequently use people‘s appearances to form our judgments about them and to determine our responses to them. The tendency to attribute personality characteristics to people on the basis of their external appearance or their social group memberships is known as stereotyping. Our stereotypes about physically attractive people lead us to see them as more dominant, sexually warm, mentally healthy, intelligent, and socially skilled than we perceive physically unattractive [10] people (Langlois et al. And our stereotypes lead us to treat people differently—the physically attractive are given better grades on essay exams, are more successful on job interviews, and receive lighter sentences in court judgments than their less attractive counterparts [11] (Hosoda, Stone-Romero, & Coats, 2003; Zebrowitz & McDonald, 1991). In addition to stereotypes about physical attractiveness, we also regularly stereotype people on the basis of their sex, race, age, religion, and many other characteristics, and these stereotypes [12] are frequently negative (Schneider, 2004). Stereotyping is unfair to the people we judge because stereotypes are based on our preconceptions and negative emotions about the members of the group. Stereotyping is closely related to prejudice, the tendency to dislike people because of their appearance or group memberships, and discrimination, negative behaviors toward others based on prejudice. We may not vote for a gay person for public office because of our negative stereotypes about gays, and we may avoid people from other religions or those with mental illness because of our prejudices. Research has found, for instance, that attractive people are actually more sociable, more popular, and less lonely than less attractive individuals Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. And, consistent with the stereotype that women are “emotional,‖ women are, on average, more empathic and attuned to the emotions of others than are men (Hall [14] & Schmid Mast, 2008). Group differences in personality traits may occur in part because people act toward others on the basis of their stereotypes, creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. A self-fulfilling prophecyoccurs when our expectations about the personality characteristics of others lead us to behave toward those others in ways that make those beliefs come true. If I have a stereotype that attractive people are friendly, then I may act in a friendly way toward people who are attractive. This friendly behavior may be reciprocated by the attractive person, and if many other people also engage in the same positive behaviors with the person, in the long run he or she may actually become friendlier. But even if attractive people are on average friendlier than unattractive people, not all attractive people are friendlier than all unattractive people. And even if women are, on average, more emotional than men, not all men are less emotional than all women. Social psychologists believe that it is better to treat people as individuals rather than rely on our stereotypes and prejudices, because stereotyping and prejudice are always unfair and often inaccurate (Fiske, 1989; Stangor, [15] 1995). Furthermore, many of our stereotypes and prejudices occur out of our awareness, such that we do not even know that we are using them. Implicit Association Test You might want to test your own stereotypes and prejudices by completing the Implicit Association Test, a measure of unconscious stereotyping. Because our primitive ancestors needed to accurately separate members of their own kin group from those of others, categorizing people into “us‖ (the ingroup) and “them‖ (the outgroup) was useful and even necessary (Neuberg, [16] Kenrick, & Schaller, 2010).

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Devise a plan of therapeutic ac- tivities and provide client with a written time schedule buy cheap viagra professional 100 mg line. Remember: The client who is moderately depressed feels best early in the day viagra professional 50mg amex, whereas later in the day is a better time for the severely depressed individual to participate in activities discount viagra professional 50 mg on-line. It is important to plan activities at a time when the client has more energy and is more likely to gain from the experience generic viagra professional 50 mg on line. Positive reinforcement enhances self-esteem and encourages repetition of desirable behaviors. Long-term Goal Client will be able to effectively problem solve ways to take control of his or her life situation by time of discharge from treatment, thereby decreasing feelings of powerlessness. Encourage client to take as much responsibility as possible for own self-care practices. Respect client’s right to make those decisions independently, and refrain from attempting to influence him or her toward those that may seem more logical. Unrealistic goals set the client up for failure and reinforce feelings of powerlessness. Client’s emotional condition interferes with his or her ability to solve problems. Assistance is required to per- ceive the benefits and consequences of available alternatives accurately. Help client identify areas of life situation that are not within his or her ability to control. Encourage verbalization of feel- ings related to this inability in an effort to deal with unre- solved issues and accept what cannot be changed. Encourage partici- pation in these activities, and provide positive reinforcement for participation, as well as for achievement. Positive reinforce- ment enhances self-esteem and encourages repetition of desir- able behaviors. Client verbalizes choices made in a plan to maintain control over his or her life situation. Client verbalizes honest feelings about life situations over which he or she has no control. Client is able to verbalize system for problem solving as required for adequate role performance. Possible Etiologies (“related to”) [Withdrawal into the self] [Underdeveloped ego; punitive superego] [Impaired cognition fostering negative perception of self and the environment] Defining Characteristics (“evidenced by”) Inaccurate interpretation of environment [Delusional thinking] Hypovigilance [Altered attention span]—distractibility Egocentricity [Impaired ability to make decisions, problem solve, reason] [Negative ruminations] Goals/Objectives Short-term Goal Client will recognize and verbalize when interpretations of the environment are inaccurate within 1 week. Long-term Goal By time of discharge from treatment, client’s verbalizations will reflect reality-based thinking with no evidence of delusional or distorted ideation. Convey your acceptance of client’s need for the false belief, while letting him or her know that you do not share the delusion. A positive response would convey to the client that you accept the delusion as reality. Use reasonable doubt as a therapeutic technique: “I understand that you believe this is true, but I personally find it hard to accept. Use the techniques of consensual validation and seeking clari- fication when communication reflects alteration in thinking. Use real situations and events to divert client away from long, purposeless, repetitive verbalizations of false ideas. Give positive reinforcement as client is able to differenti- ate between reality-based and non–reality-based thinking. Positive reinforcement enhances self-esteem and encourages repetition of desirable behaviors. Teach client to intervene, using thought-stopping techniques, when irrational or negative thoughts prevail. This noise or command distracts the individual from the unde- sirable thinking that often precedes undesirable emotions or behaviors. Clients who are suspicious may perceive touch as threatening and may respond with aggression. Client is able to recognize negative or irrational thoughts and intervene to “stop” their progression.

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These are important assessment data to be used in assisting the client with problem resolution purchase 100 mg viagra professional mastercard. Do not focus on the disability purchase viagra professional 50 mg without a prescription, and allow client to be as inde- pendent as possible cheap 50mg viagra professional free shipping. Positive reinforcement would encourage continual use of the maladaptive response for secondary gains viagra professional 50mg fast delivery, such as dependency. Encourage client to participate in therapeutic activities to the best of his or her ability. Reinforce reality as required, but ensure maintenance of a nonthreatening environment. Help client to recognize that the physical symptom appears at a time of extreme stress and is a mechanism used for coping. Client may be unaware of the relationship between physical symp- tom and emotional stress. Help client identify coping mechanisms that he or she could use when faced with stressful situations rather than retreat- ing from reality with a physical disability. Use of assertiveness techniques en- hances self-esteem and minimizes anxiety in interpersonal relationships. Help client identify a satisfactory support system within the community from which he or she may seek assistance as needed to cope with overwhelming stress. Client verbalizes an understanding of the relationship between extreme psychological stress and loss of physical functioning. Client is able to verbalize adaptive ways of coping with stress and identify community support systems to which he or she may go for help. Ensure that nonjudgmental attitude is conveyed as nursing assistance with self-care activities is provided. A judgmental attitude interferes with the nurse’s ability to provide therapeutic care for this client. Feed client, if necessary, and provide assistance with con- tainers, positioning, and other matters, as required. Assist client with dressing, oral hygiene, combing hair, and applying makeup, as required. Provide bedpan, commode, or assistance to bathroom as determined by client’s level of ability. Positive reinforcement enhances self-esteem and encourages repetition of desired behaviors. Take precautions against fostering dependency by inter- vening when client is capable of performing independently. Allow ample time for client to complete these activities to the best of his or her ability without assistance. Allowing the client to maintain dependency may provide secondary gains and delay recovery from the disability. Encourage client to discuss feelings regarding the disability and the need for dependency it creates. Self- disclosure and exploration of feelings with a trusted in- dividual may help client fulfill unmet needs and confront unresolved issues. Client maintains optimal level of personal hygiene by bathing daily and carrying out essential toileting procedures without assistance. Somatoform Disorders ● 189 Possible Etiologies (“related to”) Lack of interest in learning [Severe level of anxiety] Defining Characteristics (“evidenced by”) [Denial of emotional problems] [Statements such as, “I don’t know why the doctor put me on the psychiatric unit. Long-term Goal By time of discharge from treatment, client will be able to ver- balize psychological cause(s) for physical symptoms. Assess client’s level of knowledge regarding effects of psy- chological problems on the body. An adequate database is necessary for the development of an effective teaching plan. These feelings may have been suppressed or repressed for a very long time and their disclosure will undoubtedly be a pain- ful experience.

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In other countries purchase 50 mg viagra professional free shipping, a much smaller percentage of the population has access to the sophisticated medical facilities that characterize developed nations generic 50 mg viagra professional with mastercard. The potential impact of pandemics derived from a wide variety of microorganisms pose increasing public health threats as world population and frequency of international travel increase buy 50 mg viagra professional, factors supplementing the rising threat of antibiotic resistant diseases discount 50 mg viagra professional with mastercard. The world is now, in effect, getting smaller just as its supplies of potable fresh water, including 3 fossil water, are being rapidly depleted, a topic to be further explored in volume 6 of this publication series. The answer lies in that huge panorama of microbiomes that are the basis for life on Earth. This vast landscape, which includes all aquatic and terrestrial environments, has its roots in ancient bacterial communities that can be traced back billions of years. Many now lost microbes once inhabited ancient bacterial microbiomes in all trophic levels of the biosphere. Their descendents continue to live in all the microbiomes that characterize the biosphere, one of hundreds of millions of which is the human gut. Human intestines are characterized by as many as 100 trillion microorganisms belonging to 200 or more microbial species. Thousands of years before the development of industrial agriculture and before the evolution of hospital-acquired infections, ancient environmental reservoirs of resistance characterized all microbiomes, including the microbial communities characterizing the human gut (stomach and intestines), skin, the vaginal environment, the lungs and nose and the oral environment of the mouth. A number of annotated citations in this text highlight these ancient reservoirs of bacteria and the change in the genes that evolved to counteract or control other bacterial infections. A whole new world of manmade environmental chemicals now characterizes our hemispheric water supply, including all biomes whose key constituent is water. Only a small percentage of the total volume of these effluents can be biodegraded or bioconverted to other metabolites by the creative diversity of our many microbial communities. The ecological, as well as the social, political, and economic context of our biosphere in crisis can now be summarized by an historical observation: (x) the growing impact of “antibiotic winter. Many pandemics have been halted by the vaccines produced by the world medical community. Polio, smallpox, and _____ head the list of dangerous plagues that are now medical history. The rapid spread of Lyme disease is an example of a viral infection that, unlike bacterial infections, cannot be treated with antibiotics, even though they use them a lot. All bacterial and viral infections are occurring in the context of a rapidly 5 growing world population and an expanding global consumer society. Contemporary society is now characterized by growing income inequality and a dramatic lack of funding for basic infrastructure maintenance. This lack of __________________ combines with growing political paralysis, at least in the United States, and a lack of informed consensus, all of which encourages the growing health care inequality that the world population now faces. Despite a dedicated and innovative med-techno-elite, the reality of the ecological impact of our beloved petrochemical-industrial-consumer product culture is the unfortunate downside of the glowing florescence of humanity in the Anthropocene. Humanity in the Anthropocene has developed pyrotechnical petrochemical technologies, which are the basis for the evolution of a sophisticated global industrial society. The phenomenon of microbial resistance occurs in the context of the evolution of this industrial society, which now spreads ecotoxins of every description throughout the hemispheric water cycle. Effective antibiotic treatments have been a key component of the evolution of modern society. We now enjoy a multitude of cascading Industrial Revolutions that include the many benefits of the Age of Plastics, the _____________ of the Age of Digital Technology, and the many inventions of the Age of Nanotechnology. The growing production and use of pharmaceuticals, an essential component of our sophisticated techno-medical health care systems, now also produce ubiquitous trace components of a multiplicity of organic chemicals in our surface and public water supplies. The plumes of pharmaceuticals now moving through our public water supply are accompanied by numerous antibiotic resistant species that now characterize the human biome. These antibiotic resistant species have evolved from many sources ranging from the ancient human microbiome to the growth of industrial agriculture. Misuse, and especially overuse, of antibiotics in the many communities served by _____________________ , especially including assisted living facilities, is another notable source of the evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The context of the threat of antimicrobial resistance is a component of a world water crisis that reflects the impact of an industrial-military-consumer society on our vulnerable hemispheric water cycle. Our very high in the sky Googled historical overview might include the once fertile Babylonian Crescent (Tigris-Euphrates river valley), or the many sailing ships and timber framed wharfs characterizing the Wooden Age. At this point in the history of the Anthropocene there were no vaccines to counteract the many pandemics and infections 7 that were occurring.

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