By Y. Rhobar. Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg.
OFD syn- ORGANIZATIONS dromes are so named because they all cause changes in the Canadian Opitz Family Network trusted apcalis sx 20 mg. Box 892 order 20mg apcalis sx mastercard, Errington cheap apcalis sx 20mg on line, BC V0R oral structures generic apcalis sx 20mg, including the tongue, teeth, and jaw; the 1V0. X-linked means that the syn- Lisa Maria Andres, MS, CGC drome is carried on the female sex chromosome, while dominant means that only one parent has to pass on the gene mutation in order for the child to be affected with Opitz-Frias syndrome see Opitz syndrome the syndrome. OFD syndrome type VII is inherited either as an X- Opitz-Kaveggia syndrome see FG linked or autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. OFD syndrome types II, III, IV, V, and VI are passed on through an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Recessive means that both parents must carry the gene mutation in order for their child to have the disorder. IOral-facial-digital syndrome OFD syndrome types VIII and IX are characterized Definition by either an autosomal or X-linked recessive pattern of Oral-facial-digital (OFD) syndrome is a generic inheritance. As of 2001, the specific gene GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS 841 KEY TERMS Digit—A finger or toe. Demographics There does not appear to be any clear-cut ethnic pat- tern to the incidence of OFD syndrome. Most types of OFD syndrome affect males and females with equal One of the many traits found in individuals with OFD probability, although type I, the most common type, syndrome is webbing of the fingers and toes. The overall incidence of OFD syndrome has not been established due to the wide variation between the Mental development and central nervous system: different types of the syndrome and the difficulty of • Mental retardation definitive diagnosis. In general, the symptoms include the following: Other: Oral features: • Growth retardation • Cleft lip • Cardiovascular abnormalities • Cleft palate or highly arched palate • Sunken chest • Lobed or split tongue • Tumors of the tongue • Susceptibility to respiratory infection • Missing or extra teeth Diagnosis • Gum disease • Misaligned bite Diagnosis is usually made based on the observation of clinical symptoms. There is currently no medical test • Smaller than normal jaw that can definitively confirm the diagnosis of OFD syn- drome, with the exception of genetic screening for OFD Facial features: syndrome type I. Surgical correction of • Low-set or angled ears the oral and facial malformations associated with OFD syndrome is often required. Digital features: Prognosis • Extra fingers or toes • Abnormally short fingers Prognosis depends on the specific type of OFD syn- drome and the symptoms present in the individual. OFD • Webbing between fingers or toes syndrome type I is lethal in males before birth. However, • Clubfoot other types of OFD syndrome are found in both males • Permanently flexed fingers and females. Due to the wide variety of symptoms seen 842 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS in the nine types of the syndrome, overall survival rates different organic acidemia disorders. PO Box 280297, Dallas, Amino acids are chemical compounds from which TX 75243-4522. Proteins in the body are formed through FACES: The National Craniofacial Association. PO Box 11082, various combinations of roughly half of these amino Chattanooga, TN 37401. PO Box glycemia, combined carboxylase deficiency, hydroxy- 8923, New Fairfield, CT 06812-8923. Organic acidemias caused by fatty acid oxidation disor- “Oral-Facial-Digital Syndrome, Type III. Johnson Genetic profile Genes are the blueprint for the human body, direct- ing the development of cells and tissue. Mutations in some genes can cause genetic disorders such as the organic acidemias. Every cell in the body has 23 pairs of IOrganic acidemias chromosomes, 22 pairs of which contain two copies of individual genes. Men have an X and a Y chromosome fatty acid oxidation disorders that cause non-amino while women have two X chromosomes. Organic acidemias are generally believed to be autosomal recessive disorders that affect males and Description females. Autosomal means that the gene does not reside Organic acidemias are divided into two categories: on the twenty-third or sex chromosome.
Typically buy 20 mg apcalis sx otc, compliance aids have been classified into three categories; pill holders (Corlett apcalis sx 20 mg line, 1996) best apcalis sx 20 mg, alarm-based aids (Szeto & Giles generic 20 mg apcalis sx with mastercard, 1997) and monitoring devices (Wertheimer & Santella, 2003). For example, for a given patient, analysis of their data may show that due to their lifestyle they repeatedly miss their medication dosages on Friday afternoons and Saturday nights. For a different patient, analysis may show that they have high levels of non-compliance during periods at which they may be at work. The resultant informa- tion can be used to readjust the medication regimen in instances of non-compliance. Example 3: Hospital Management of Bed Occupancy The estimation of the length of stay of patients in hospitals is important for patient treatment management, bed occupancy management and cost effectiveness measures. Mathematical models have been produced as decision aids in this area (McClean, 1994) and in addition many trauma scores can be used to give an indication of patient survival probability (Boyd, Tolson, & Cope, 1987) and severity of trauma indices (Champion, Copes, & Sacco, 1990). All of this information along with demographic details, treatment, physical and mental scores can be taken into consideration and used as means upon which to generate a time to event measure, that is, prediction of length of stay in hospital. This is a complex and multi-factorial problem, but nevertheless one worthy of further attention. Qualitative and quantitative TR techniques may be used as the basis to model Copyright © 2005, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. Management and Analysis of Time-Related Data in Internet-Based Healthcare 47 the time to event measures. These techniques can easily be integrated into a hospital based administrative system operating on an intranet/Internet basis which collates information from all in-patients and wards within a hospital environment, in addition to having access to centralized patient information. It can thus accommodate for the complex temporal nature of the problem through formalized approaches, for example: Quantitative TR Rule Set to Manage Bed Occupancy +Vacant beds should be increased by 10% during vacation periods, predicted flu epidemics etc. Future Trends It is clear that the Internet will have a long-term role within healthcare applications. At present its application and ability to improve upon current and existing healthcare practices has shown its promise and already we are slowly witnessing its uptake. Many of the drivers that will inevitably lead to success will come from governmental perspec- tives. For example, in the United Kingdom the government has put at the forefront of its healthcare organization agenda development and increased usage of Intranet and Internet services (Tyrrell, 1999). Provision of access to clinical information via Internet- based services allows not only access via common desktop PCs, but also through the usage of mobile phones with Web browsers and personal digital assistants. Hence users will no longer be geographically constrained and will be able to access information whilst undertaking house calls or on a hospital ward. This concept is further extended through the new and innovative research areas of Ambient Intelligence, Context-Aware Comput- ing, User Profiling and Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (ERCIM News, 2001) where networks and interoperable communication infrastructures, along with intelligent pro- cessing of information gathered have evolved as the next generation of services which could further support this area. In general, the role of ICT within healthcare will change the way in which patients interact with healthcare professionals and also the way in which healthcare professionals interact with each other. It is not unreasonable to consider that patients may be able to access information via the Internet in the future and self-diagnose based on their symptoms (Tyrrell, 1999). In addition, the recent success of sensor and textile technologies, wearable vital sign monitors and home based medical devices for self assessment make self-recording a possibility and provide tangible clinical information to be used in self- diagnosis. For this to become reality, regional and national networks of high standing will have to be established to ensure the integrity of the information and processes to which the patient may have access. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. All of which will greater inform the healthcare professionals resulting in an overall improved level in healthcare quality. From a more general perspective, the Internet has the ability to connect, on a global scale patients and healthcare professionals during consultation processes. For example, a patient may request a diagnosis directly from any private based clinic in the world, or on a “pay-per-use” basis, exploit the e-commerce nature of the Internet and decrease waiting times for private examinations or treatments.
M any neuroactive peptides appear to co- Substance P occurs in high concentrations in neurons exist and be released along with one or m ore of the projecting into the substantia gelatinosa layer of the “traditional” neurotransm itters generic apcalis sx 20mg visa, such as A Ch buy generic apcalis sx 20 mg on-line, dop- spinal cord from dorsal root ganglia purchase 20mg apcalis sx with mastercard, am ong m any other am ine buy apcalis sx 20 mg on-line, or serotonin. Substance P can directly depolarize M ore than two dozen peptides are being studied as m otor neurons in a m anner analogous to that of other probable central neurotransm itters, and likely m any excitatory neurotransm itters. Therefore, stance P is released from sm all unm yelinated nerve this chapter m akes no attem pt to cover them all. This apparent barrier to drugs and Vasopressin and Oxytocin other chem icals is relative rather than absolute, and in H istorically vasopressin and oxytocin, two nonapep- fact there are several barriers to substances entering the tides, were the ﬁrst peptide “neurohorm ones” to be con- brain from the system ic circulation. The term blood- sidered; they are stored in the neurohypophysis and re- brain barrier is usually applied to the lack of passage of leased into the bloodstream upon an appropriate certain drugs or other exogenously adm inistered chem - stim ulus. In addition to these well-accepted roles as neu- 60,000 and above tend to rem ain within the circulatory rohorm ones, there is convincing evidence that these system. Furtherm ore, the portion of an adm inistered com pounds function as neurotransm itters; they both drug that is bound to plasm a proteins is unavailable for possess potent inhibitory actions on neurohypophyseal distribution to the brain (as well as to other tissues and neurons. The signiﬁcance of their neurotransm itter organs), in part because of the high m olecular weight of function is not yet clear. There are two physicochem ical factors particularly Endogenous Opioid Peptides im portant in allowing a drug to enter the CNS. First, for com pounds that are m ainly un-ionized at plasm a pH A sem inal discovery during the 1960s and 1970s was (pK 7. A lipid-soluble agent can m ore brain that appeared to possess the pharm acological easily penetrate lipid m em branes, such as those found qualities of m orphine and other opioid analgesics. The proportion of drug that is un-ionized is had been known for quite awhile that m ost “drug re- another im portant determ inant. These two properties ceptors” were in fact receptors for endogenous trans- cannot be com pletely separated, since un-ionized drugs m itters. A s A vram G oldstein, one of the pharm acologists in- Location of the Blood-Brain Barrier volved in discovering the endogenous opioids, noted, “It seem ed unlikely, a priori, that such highly stereo- The capillaries of the brain are the m ost likely location specific receptors should have been developed by na- of the blood-brain barrier. Brain capillaries differ in ture to interact with alkaloids from the opium several im portant respects from capillaries in other poppy. For exam ple, the endothelial A series of peptides, occurring naturally in brain cells of brain capillaries are so closely joined to each and possessing pharm acological properties sim ilar to other that passage of substances cannot readily occur those of m orphine, have been described. A t least through the intercellular clefts between adjacent cells; three separate fam ilies of peptides have opioid prop- furtherm ore, brain capillaries do not contain fenestrae erties (Table 24. It is likely especially those in renal glom eruli and in the chorioid that the endogenous opioid peptides coexist in neu- plexus. The ini- fusion appears to be directly related to the num ber of tial hope that these endogenous agents or synthetic capillary pores. Com pared with capillaries at other derivatives of them would be found to retain the anal- sites, brain capillaries also appear to possess very few gesic activity of the opioids but be devoid of respira- pinocytotic vesicles, which are believed to play a role in tory depression and/or addictive properties has now the transport of large m olecules through capillary som ewhat abated. Brain capillaries contain m any m ore m itochondria than do other capillaries, and it is probable that the m i- tochondria supply energy for active transport of water- soluble nutrient substances into the brain. These 288 IV DRUGS AFFECTING THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Lipid-soluble Lipid-soluble Carrier-mediated Transcellular passage Intracellular cleft passage Pinocytosis Mitochondria Astrocytic process Fenestra General Brain Capillary Capillary FIG U R E 24. Exchange of compounds between the circulation and the brain must take place in the cells of the capillary wall, the major barriers of which are the inner and outer plasma membranes of the capillary endothelial cells. Peptide transm itters will not readily penetrate the brain from the circulation, and they are synthesized in the brain. Signiﬁcance of the Blood-Brain Barrier The blood-brain barrier is not found in all parts of It is likely that the blood-brain barrier serves prim arily the brain. Certain sm all areas, including the area to preserve the internal environm ent of the brain and postrem a beneath the ﬂoor of the fourth ventricle, an prevent sudden increases in concentration of a variety area in the preoptic recess, and portions of the ﬂoor of of water-soluble ionized substances, including m any cir- the third ventricle surrounding the stalk of the pituitary, culating neurotransm itters, such as norepinephrine, epi- appear to be devoid of this barrier. The concen- The ability of the blood-brain barrier to exclude en- tration in the brain of these bioactive substances try of a num ber of drugs into the brain has several ther- appears to be carefully regulated.
In an effort to improve reliability and validity and to decrease the time required to complete the index discount 20 mg apcalis sx free shipping, some items were eliminated from each subscale order 20 mg apcalis sx free shipping. Items were excluded from the final form of the SPADI if test-retest reliability was low or if correlation with shoulder range of motion on the involved side was low discount apcalis sx 20 mg free shipping. The pain subscale was reduced from nine to five items and the disability subscale was reduced from 11 to 8 items (Table 21) purchase 20 mg apcalis sx with visa. The SPADI was self-administered and, in its final form, required 5±10 minutes to complete. No pain _____________________ Worst pain imaginable _____ Disability scale How much difficulty do you have? No difficulty _____________________ So difficult Required help _____ Scoring system. Visual analog scales seem to reflect more closely what the subject actually ex- periences and are the most widely employed type of scale in die mea- surement of the pain associated with rheumatic disorders. The visual analog scales used in the SPADI consisted of horizontal lines to which ware attached neither numbers nor divisions. Verbal anchors, represent- ing opposite extremes of the dimension being measured, were placed at either end of the line. The patient was instructed to place a mark on the line in the position that best represented his experience during the past week attributable to the shoulder problem. A numeric score was calculated for each item by arbitrarily dividing the horizontal line into 12 segments of equal length. A number ranging from 0 to 11 was attached to this segment to produce a score for each item. The subscale scores ware calculated by adding the item scores for that subscale and dividing this number by the maximum score possible for the items that were deemed applicable by the subject. Any item marked by the patient as not ap- plicable was not included in the maximum possible score. Therefore, scores could theoretically range from 0 to 100 with higher scores indicating greater impairment. The total SPADI score was calcu- 252 19 Scores lated by averaging the pain and disability subscale scores. The SPADI appears to have functioned well in a patient population that consisted primarily of older men. The degree to which these results can be generalized to women and younger individuals with shoulder problems remains to be fully demonstrated. After the initial training session, however, most patients can complete the SPADI without further assistance. The SPADI demonstrates good internal consistency, test-retest reli- ability, and criterion and construct validity. The SPADI should therefore prove to be a useful Instrument both in clinical practice and in clinical research. The purpose of this paper is to present a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess symptoms and function of the shoulder and to report the results of a prospective evaluation of its validity, reliability, and responsiveness to clinical change. Development of the questionnaire A preliminary questionnaire was developed and was completed by thirty patients who were being managed for disorders related to the shoulder. A subset of these patients was interviewed, and each question was as- sessed for clinical relevance, relative importance, and ease of completion a 19. This allowed modifications to be made to produce the re- vised questionnaire that was prospectively assessed. After this assess- ment, questions that had poor reliability, substantially reduced the total or subset internal consistency, or contributed little to the clinical sensi- tivity of the over-all instrument were eliminated to produce the current questionnaire. The Shoulder Rating Questionnaire includes six separately scored do- mains: global assessment, pain, daily activities, recreational and athletic activities, work, and satisfaction (Table 22). A final, nongraded domain allows the patient to select two areas in which he or she believes im- provement is most important (Table 22). The global assessment domain (Question 1) consists of a 10-cm long visual analog scale. A visual analog scale is a straight line, the ends of which are defined as the extreme limits of the response or sensation to be measured.
Doctors can confirm the presence of multiple the distinctive structure of PJS polyps and the unusual polyps using a variety of methods 20 mg apcalis sx for sale. Noninvasive methods location of PJS freckles eliminate other conditions from include ultrasound and x ray techniques purchase 20 mg apcalis sx. These methods Treatment and management include endoscopy purchase apcalis sx 20 mg with visa, enteroscopy discount apcalis sx 20mg without prescription, and colonoscopy, all of which involve entry to the gastrointestinal tract through For people with a family history of PJS, treatment an existing body orifice. Laparoscopy is another invasive and management of the condition may begin even before method; it involves entering the gastrointestinal tract diagnosis. All invasive methods there are no symptoms of polyps, affected families may allow for removal of polyps found during the exam. The aver- children are old enough to understand the disease, its age age at PJS diagnosis is 17. Sometimes, though, the freckles fade under the age of 10, any delay could be risky. It is important to take it is appropriate for families with PJS to consider genetic a medical history in order to determine if freckles were testing for their children. The doctor should also STK11 mutation can begin a preventive care program examine the lining of the cheeks inside the mouth, where immediately, and children who do not carry an STK11 freckles are likely to remain throughout life. The number and intensity of the freckles do not pre- The decision to seek genetic testing requires careful dict the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms or the risk consideration. A positive test for PJS cannot predict the 912 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS precise age of onset, symptoms, severity, or progress of Some people with PJS do not care for the appearance the condition. Removal of freckles using laser therapy family members as they confront the medical, social, per- is an available treatment option. Many people with PJS find the preventive screening Parents, siblings, and children of people with STK11 program psychologically exhausting, and young children mutations may not wish to undergo genetic testing. These individuals often need the this case, they should have a thorough clinical exam to ongoing support and understanding of friends, family, confirm or rule out PJS. In addition, people age 10 or ple with PJS, their family members, and medical profes- older require gastrointestinal screening, abdominal ultra- sionals offer additional support and information. Females should have a People with PJS may find it helpful to consult a pelvic exam and ultrasound, pap smear, and breast exam genetic counselor. Women age 35 or older should have date information about PJS research, therapy, and man- a mammogram. For people with no family history of PJS, treatment and management usually begin when PJS is diagnosed. Prognosis In past generations, polyp complications such as Early detection of PJS is the key to its prognosis. Polypectomy may be This increases the likelihood of finding suspicious done at the same time as endoscopy, enteroscopy, growths before they become malignant. Anesthesia is used to make Unless they undergo regular screening, people with the patient more comfortable. PJS have a one in two chance of dying from cancer To manage polyps and screen for early signs of can- before the age of 60. Moreover, the average age of cancer cer, all people who have PJS and are age 10 or older need death in unscreened people with PJS is 39. Gastrointestinal Researchers are actively investigating cancer screen- screening is the first test, and polypectomy is performed ing, prevention, and treatment methods. Also at age 10, the person begins an regular preventive screening may reduce the illness and annual screening program that includes a blood test for premature death associated with PJS. After age 10, gastrointestinal screening with Resources polypectomy is performed every two years. New well as a pelvic exam and ultrasound, pap smear, and York: Churchill Livingstone, 1996. By age 35, a woman with PJS should have her first mammogram; mammograms should be repeated every PERIODICALS two years until the woman is 50. Fax: (888) 394-3937 info (ACS5) and Noack syndrome both refer to Pfeiffer @geneticalliance. IMPACC (Intestinal Multiple Polyposis and Colorectal Pfeiffer syndrome is an autosomal dominant condi- Cancer). Johns Hopkins Autosomal dominant conditions occur if a person has a Hospital, Blalock 1008, 600 North Wolfe St.