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By S. Miguel. Saratoga University School of Law. 2018.

Some vegetarians maintain that there is evidence na usually refers to chest pain associated with a that Jesus and the early Christians were vegetarians as heart spasm cheap lopressor 25mg line. In ancient India lopressor 50 mg fast delivery, the idea of ahimsa developed discount 100 mg lopressor overnight delivery, Petit mal seizures—A less severe form of epileptic which means “not doing harm generic lopressor 25mg. In the Hindu reli- gion, cows are considered sacred animals because Hindus Lockie, Andrew and Nicola Geddes. The Complete Guide to believe that milk is a nutritious and life-supporting gift Homeopathy. ORGANIZATIONS The yoga system of living and health is vegetarian, National Center for Homeopathy. Fairfax Street, Suite because its dietary practices are based on the belief that 306, Alexandria, VA 22314. Prana is the universal life OTHER energy, which yoga experts believe is abundant in fresh Homeopathic Internet Resources. Some Buddhists in Japan and China are vegetarian because of Tish Davidson their spiritual beliefs. Other traditional cultures, such as those in the Middle East and the Mediterranean regions, have evolved diets that consist mainly of lacto-ovo vege- tarian foods. Lacto-ovo vegetarianism The list of famous vegetarians forms an illustrious Definition group. The ancient Greek philosophers, including Socrates, Plato, and Pythagoras, advocated vegetarianism. Lacto-ovo vegetarians are people who do not eat Other famous vegetarians include Leonardo da Vinci, Sir meat, but do include dairy products (lacto) and eggs Isaac Newton, the physician Albert Schweitzer, writer (ovo) in their diets. Albert Einstein, although Origins not a strict vegetarian himself, stated that a vegetarian diet would be an evolutionary step forward for the human race. The term vegetarian was coined in 1847 by the founders of the Vegetarian Society of Great Britain, al- Vegetarianism in America has generally consisted of a though vegetarianism as a way of life has existed for small but vocal number of adherents. The founders of the Vegetarian Soci- mid-1800s, when some people began to question accepted ety were lacto-ovo vegetarians. In 1839, Sylvester Graham, One of the central ideas that has motivated vegetari- who invented the “graham cracker” from whole wheat ans is that food choices should not require the death or flour, wrote Lectures on the Science of Human Life. Thus, many vegetarians avoid meat decades later, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David but eat dairy products and eggs (on the grounds that Thoreau both advocated vegetarianism. Some people argue, Williams published The Ethics of Diet, which promoted however, that eating eggs may prevent the life of an ani- vegetarianism and listed all the famous vegetarians mal, so some vegetarians are lacto-vegetarians. In the Christian tradition, the Trappist gained followers in America, although it met consider- 1178 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 able resistance from the meat industry and general pub- have repeatedly shown in studies that a healthy diet con- lic. By the 1960s, the consumption of meat in America sists of plenty of fresh vegetables and fruits, complex had increased significantly from consumption levels at carbohydrates such as whole grains, and foods that are the turn of the century. Meat and dairy foods made up high in fiber and low in cholesterol and saturated fat. Some researchers claimed In alternative medicine, vegetarianism is a corner- that meat was fundamental to health, while a growing stone dietary therapy, used in Ayurvedic treatment, minority of nutritionists began to correlate the meat-cen- detoxification therapies, the Ornish and Wigmore diets, tered American diet with rising rates of heart disease, and in treatments for many chronic conditions including cancer, and diabetes. Up to that time it was believed by American nutritionists Benefits that only meat could supply adequate protein. Lappe ar- gued that by combining particular foods such as rice and Lacto-ovo vegetarianism is sometimes recommended beans, which was done in the diets of older cultures, veg- as a dietary therapy for a variety of conditions, including etarians could obtain proteins that are as complete as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, stroke, high cholesterol, protein derived from meat. The book sold millions of obesity, osteoporosis, hypertension, gout, gallstones, copies, and researchers have since confirmed that vege- kidney stones, ulcers, colitis, hemorrhoids, premen- tarianism provides adequate amounts of dietary protein. Lacto-ovo vegetari- lished Diet for a New America, in which he makes a anism is an economical and easily implemented preven- strong point against the health issues of a meat-centered tive practice. It does, however, require self-education re- diet, and against the cruelty inflicted on animals from garding an adequate diet in those who adopt it.

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Information analyses measure how well an ideal observer of neuronal responses can discriminate between the stimuli that evoked them discount 50mg lopressor otc. For a given set of stimuli buy lopressor 50 mg line, the information transmitted about the stimuli increases when the neural response to each stimulus order 12.5mg lopressor overnight delivery, on a typical trial discount lopressor 25 mg fast delivery, is increasingly unique. Informative responses carry more bits of information permitting the observer to greatly narrow down the estimate of which stimulus occurred. For the collection of physiological data, spike trains of small sets of single-units in barrel cortex were simultaneously recorded while whiskers were stimulated one at a time. On these same trials, the spike counts (where the entire 40-msec response period is considered as one bin) would be <2> and <1>. Taking the timing of spikes into consideration makes the cortical population code potentially very rich and complex. The application of a stimulus in fact activates many cortical neurons, each of which could emit several spikes. The situation is complicated by the fact that those spikes are often correlated, and correlations may be a key ingredient to the neuronal code. We addressed this problem by taking advantage of a recently developed information theoretic approach – the series expan- sion. We first examined whether the timing of spikes conveys additional information not available in the spike counts alone and found that, for single cells, spike timing at 2. To what extent does the information in spike timing arise from correlations between spikes? When we examined pairs of neurons located in column D2, we found that individual spikes were far more informative about the stimulus set than were correlated spike patterns. Results were very similar for neuron pairs recorded in the same or in adjacent barrel columns. For example, for neuron pairs in barrel columns D1 and D3, 79% of the total information was carried by individual spikes, and 21% by correlated spike patterns. Nearly all the information in correlations was due to within-cell spike patterns; cross-cell spike patterns had a negligible effect. DECODING THE ACTIVITY OF RAT BARREL CORTEX POPULATIONS The results summarized above suggest that a downstream neuron-reading barrel cortex output can capture almost all the available information about the sensory stimulus (at least for the stimulus set analyzed here) by integrating spikes indi- vidually and not registering the correlations among them. Although the absence of information in cross-neuron correlations simplifies the decoding problem, to make full use of the available information, the target neurons still must conserve the label of each incoming spike – the identity of the neuron from which the spike arises. To use the terminology above, the total information carried by two neurons with simultaneous spike trains <1 0 0 1> and <0 1 0 0> depends on the spike trains being integrated separately. However, this would entail complicated bio- physical mechanisms at the level of the dendritic tree of the target neurons. A simpler alternative is the pooling together by the postsynaptic neuron of the spikes coming from all neurons. However, if the neurons converging on a target report different aspects of the external world (that is, if their receptive fields are different), © 2005 by Taylor & Francis Group. A dilemma thus appears to be posed by two incompatible strategies – labeling input neurons yields an enormous information capacity but inherent decoding com- plexity, whereas pooling input neurons could lead to substantial information loss but an inherent decoding simplicity. We proposed that columnar organization might contribute toward resolving this dilemma. Columns facilitate the pooling of neurons with similar receptive fields and the separation of neurons with dissimilar receptive fields. Moreover, columnar bundling seems to be respected in the output of sensory cortex. Many of the output projections preserve some degree of columnar organiza- tion, such that target neurons indeed receive convergent input from afferent fibers arising in the same column. We tested the proposal of informational efficiency by quantifying how much the information about stimulus location was diminished due to pooling. Pooling neurons within the same column, on the other hand, caused a loss of only about 5% of the information. These results suggest that to decode stimulus position from the discharge of barrel cortex populations, target neurons could simply pool the activity arising from neurons of the same column, while maintaining the activity arising from neurons of separate columns at least partially segregated.

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If experience contributes to establishing these intrinsic rhythms buy 12.5mg lopressor visa, vibrissa resonance likely plays a key role 50 mg lopressor for sale. Even if vibrissa resonance does not facilitate perception buy generic lopressor 50mg line, myriad stimuli will generate vibrissa resonances lopressor 25mg mastercard,28,38 and neurons throughout the system will receive a significant fraction of their input in the high frequency range dictated by vibrissa resonance. As such, the system may become temporally tuned towards (or, potentially, away from) these high frequency inputs. In support of this suggestion, Rector and col- leagues have recently provided preliminary evidence for a spatial map of high- frequency oscillations occurring across SI in response to punctate vibrissa stimula- tion (400–600 Hz). Top panel The wide top panel of both examples shows the mean firing rate response across a range of frequencies. In both examples, the vector strength shows tuning surrounding a peak at the vibrissa fundamental resonance frequency, as seen by comparison of the blue and gray curves. Consistent with trigeminal recordings, these recordings demonstrate sharper tuning using a measure of temporal fidelity than of mean firing rate. This finding also demonstrates that the increased neural tuning measured with vector strength is not an artifact of an increased firing rate. The example in the lower frame shows no mean firing rate frequency tuning around the FRF (top panel), despite precise temporal tuning (vector strength tuning). Estimates of expected vector strength for Poisson spike trains with equal mean firing rates at each frequency are also shown (mean +- std. These measures provide some evidence for frequency doubling in the convergence of signals within SI, a finding predicted by the velocity sensitivity of the vibrissa sensory system. Smaller panels In the smaller panels, cycle histograms (upper right panels within the 4 panel grid) taken at the fundamental resonance frequency are also shown (black line), and demonstrate clear modulation at the cycle length that is not apparent in Poisson control spike trains (blue line, mean +- std. The autocorrelograms (lower right panels) and spike traces (lower left panels) identify these recordings as coming from single fast spiking unit recordings. The peri-stimulus time histogram (upper left panel: PSTH) was summed over all frequencies of presentation. Both PSTH examples demonstrate sustained firing in response to the entire 500 msec stimulus train. In this panel, the thicker blue line shows the vector strength calculated for the driving frequency. Vector strength at a given frequency indicates the power at that frequency normalized by the power over all frequencies (i. In both examples, the vector strength shows tuning surrounding a peak at the vibrissa fundamental resonance frequency, as seen by comparison of the blue and gray curves. Consistent with trigeminal recordings, these recordings demonstrate sharper tuning using a measure of tem- poral fidelity than of mean firing rate. This finding also demonstrates that the increased neural tuning measured with vector strength is not an artifact of an increased firing rate. The example in the lower frame shows no mean firing rate frequency tuning around the FRF (top panel), despite precise temporal tuning (vector strength tuning). Estimates of expected vector strength for Poisson spike trains with equal mean firing rates at each frequency are also shown (mean +- std. These measures provide some evidence for frequency doubling in the convergence of signals within SI, a finding predicted by the velocity sensitivity of the vibrissa sensory system. Smaller panels In the smaller panels, cycle histograms (upper right panels within the 4 panel grid) taken at the fundamental resonance frequency are also shown (black line), and demonstrate clear modulation at the cycle length that is not apparent in Poisson control spike trains (blue line, mean +- std. The autocorrelograms (lower right panels) and spike traces (lower left panels) identify these recordings as coming from single fast spiking unit recordings. The peri-stimulus time histogram (upper left panel: PSTH) was summed over all frequencies of presentation. Both PSTH examples demonstrate sustained firing in response to the entire 500 msec stimulus train.

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Roots discount lopressor 100mg on-line, bark order 50mg lopressor with amex, and seeds are used in decoctions; boiling the herbs brings out their medicinal properties order lopressor 100mg online. The main therapeutic constituent of marsh mallow is mucilage order lopressor 12.5mg, a spongy substance of the root that is com- Infusion—An herbal tea created by steeping herbs posed of large sugar molecules. Generally, leaves and flowers are fect stems from its ability to support white blood cells used in infusions. When liquid is added Perennial—A plant that lives for many years; to mucilage, it acquires a gel-like consistency. An infusion can be made by The German Commission E has approved marsh steeping the crushed roots in cold water overnight. The mallow as a beneficial treatment for irritated and in- infusion is then drunk as needed for symptomatic relief. The mixture is covered and leaf are licensed in Germany as standard medicinal teas. The root is also used as an ingredient in cough syrup and as a cough suppressant tea. To make a poultice, the leaves and/or the powdered or crushed roots are steeped in water. The mixture is then The British Herbal Compendium supports the use of applied externally to areas of inflamed skin, eczema,or marsh mallow for gastroenteritis, peptic and duodenal dermatitis. In the United States, marsh mallow is an ingredient in dietary supplements and For capsules, 5-6 g may be taken daily or as recom- cough suppressants. Marsh mallow provides external treatment for cuts, For a tincture, 5 ml may be taken three times daily wounds, abscesses, boils, burns, and varicose veins. A poultice containing cayenne and For sore throat, the flowers are boiled in oil and water, marsh mallow may relieve blood poisoning, gangrene, cooled, and used as a gargle to relieve sore throat pain. Preparations Precautions Marsh mallow is available in whole bulk, tincture, Diabetics should take marsh mallow with caution and capsule forms. It can be taken internally as a tea, since high doses may lower blood sugar levels. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 1293 Children and infants may take marsh mallow in low Buddhism, yoga exercises, and meditation techniques to doses. Martial arts involve intellectual concepts as well as Side effects physical techniques, and have been influenced by many of the religious and philosophical systems of the East. The Taoist philosophy holds that the universe operates within laws of balance and harmony, and that people Interactions must live within the rhythms of nature. Martial arts culti- vate these concepts of balance and adaptation to the nat- Marsh mallow may slow the absorption of other ural flow of events. Chinese Confucianism was concerned with BOOKS ethical behavior in daily life, and martial arts often ad- Lininger, D. Traditional Chinese medicine also incorporates concepts derived from mar- tial arts to better the understanding of the body and health. Because therapeutic exercise is one of the major modalities of treatment in traditional Chinese medicine, Martial arts some martial arts masters are also expert healers. There is, in fact, a subtype of qigong known as medical qigong Definition in China, used to treat a wide range of diseases and dis- Martial arts cover a broad range of activities that in- orders. Although most of the research in medical qigong volve fighting techniques, physical exercises, and methods has been conducted in China, some of this work has been of mental discipline, among other skills. A video is now available that nated in the ancient cultures of Asia, and are used today presents the basic concepts of medical qigong. Martial arts in Japan have been in- fluenced by Zen Buddhism and by the samurai warrior Very few activities have as many legends and myths tradition, which refined many weapons as well as meth- surrounding them as do martial arts. Some Japanese schools of instruction are included under the title of martial arts, and some of adopted the values of bushido, Japanese for “way of the these were passed down in secrecy for many generations. Martial arts also flourished in Korea, there are many conflicting theories and opinions concern- Vietnam, and Thailand. What is known is that mar- tial arts began in the ancient cultures of Asia, including Martial arts were largely unknown to the Western China, India, and Japan.

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