By O. Seruk. North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University.

The basic affective mood order 250 mg ceftin, which is essentially de- termined by unconscious stimuli from the visceral and somatic spheres ceftin 500 mg with mastercard, is thought to enter consciousness in this way buy ceftin 250mg with amex. Anterior and Medial Nuclear Groups buy cheap ceftin 250mg on-line, Centromedian Nucleus 183 22 11 44 33 A Fiber connections of the anterior complex (anterior thalamic nuclei) 55 66 88 77 99 B Fiber connections of the medial complex (medial thalamic nuclei) 1313 1212 1414 1010 C Fiber connections of the centromedian nucleus 1111 Kahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. A narrow caudal region of the nucleus is distinguished as ventral inter- The lateral nuclei form the dorsal tier of the mediate nucleus (B13). Neither of tegmental fasciculus from the ipsilateral the two lateral nuclei, the lateral dorsal nu- vestibular nuclei terminates here (head and cleus (A1) and the lateral posterior nu- gaze turn to the same side). The thalamic nuclei and are therefore viewed as nucleus is the terminus for the crossed, sec- integration nuclei. It re- fibers of the gracile nucleus lie laterally, ceives afferent fibers mainly from the inter- those of the cuneate nucleus medially. The nal segment of the globus pallidus (A5) resulting somatotopic organization of the (they probably originate in the caudate nu- nucleus can also be demonstrated electro- cleus [A6]) and from the nonspecific physiologically; the lower limb is repre- thalamic nuclei. Additional fibers are sented laterally, trunk and upper limb me- thought to stem from the substantia nigra, dially. The secondary trigeminal fibers the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, and the re- (lemniscus trigeminal) terminate in the me- ticular formation. The nucleus projects to dial segment of the nucleus, the ventralpost- the premotor cortex (A7) but depends only eromedial nucleus (VPM) (B17). They transmit partially on the cortex because only half of sensory information from the head and oral its neurons die after injury to the cortical re- cavity, thus completing the homunculus of gion. The ventral anterior nucleus is inte- the contralateral half of the body. The ter- grated into the ascending activation system; minus of the secondary gustatory pathway stimulation within the nuclear zone causes (p. The trigeminal pain fibers, are thought to termi- most important afferent system of the nu- nate bilaterally in the basal areas of the nu- cleus are the fibers of the crossed superior cleus. In the anterior (A18) extend to the sensory postcentral area segment of the ventral lateral nucleus there (p. The efferent of the ventral posterior nucleus and its pro- fibers (A11) extend to the cortex of the pre- jection to the cerebral cortex. The somatotopic or- ganization of the ventral lateral nucleus is obvious in this system (AB8); the lateral part of the nucleus is connected to the leg region of the precentral cortex, the adjacent parts to the trunk and arm regions, and the medial part to the head region. Thus, thalamic nucleus and cortical area show a corresponding topical subdivision. Informa- tion from the cerebellum (body posture, coordination, muscle tone) reaches the motor cortex via the ventral lateral nucleus; the cerebellum influences voluntary move- Kahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. Lateral and Ventral Nuclear Groups 185 7 3 11 12 1 2 18 4 8 14 6 5 10 15 A Fiber connections of the lateral complex (lateroventral thalamic nuclei) 9 4 8 13 17 16 B Somatotopic organization of the ventral nuclei, horizontal section (according to Hassler) Kahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. Knowledge of the functional organization makes it possible to stop severe pain Medial Geniculate Body (D) through stereotactic destruction within the ventral posterior nucleus without affecting This nucleus (D3) is the diencephalic relay tactile sensation. Itappearsas the ventral lateral nucleus, motor distur- an externally visible eminence medially to bances (hyperkinesis) can be eliminated the lateral geniculate body. Some fiber bundles of the auditory representation of various body regions. As pathway come from the nucleus of the trape- shown in the stimulation diagram (red sym- zoid body and the ipsilateral cochlear nuclei; bols) (A), the representation of the body however, most fibers originate from the runs obliquely from dorsolateral (leg region, contralateral cochlear nuclei. The efferent | ; arm region, –) to mediobasal (head re- fibers of the medial geniculate nucleus ex- gion, (! Controlled stimulation of the tend to the auditory cortex (D5), which lies ventral lateral nucleus (orange symbols) (B) in the transverse temporal gyri, or Heschl’s con- results also in involuntary sound produc- volutions (p. Sinceitdoesnotre- Lateral Geniculate Body (C) ceive any extrathalamic input, it must be This nucleus (C1) lies somewhat isolated at viewed as an integration nucleus. Afferent theventrocaudalaspectofthethalamusand fibers from the lateral geniculate nucleus is a relatively independent structure. It (collaterals of the optic fibers) and probably shows stratification into six cell layers also fibers from the medial geniculate nu- which are separated by the afferent fiber cleus enter the pulvinar.

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